Pain provocation tests and clinical entities in male football players with longstanding groin pain are associated with pain intensity and disability

Review written by Dr Stacey Hardin info

Key Points

  1. The 5 Second Squeeze Test (5SST) and the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Score (HAGOS) used in this study are free, valid and reliable tools clinicians may utilize to assist in their assessment of athletes with longstanding groin pain.
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BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE

Clinical examination of male football players with longstanding groin pain can be challenging. Many examination methods are available to assist clinicians, including palpation, pain provocation tests, range of motion, strength and movement assessments. Pain provocation tests (PPTs) may be used to examine and classify this pain into clinical entities of adductor-, iliopsoas-, inguinal-, and pubic-related, as defined by the 2015 Doha Agreement. It is unknown whether PPTs and clinical entities are associated with pain intensity and disability.

The objective of this study was to investigate whether the number of PPTs and number of clinical entities (CEs) are associated with pain intensity and disability, as measured by the 5-Second Squeeze Test (5SST) and the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Score (HAGOS).

Clinical examination of male football players with longstanding groin pain can be challenging.
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The number of positive pain provocation tests and the number of classified clinical entities were moderately to strongly associated with pain intensity and disability.

METHODS

  • The data in this study was gathered as part of a larger cross-sectional study on groin pain among male football players from 40 sub-elite football clubs in Denmark.
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