Diagnosis, prevention and treatment of common lower extremity muscle injuries in sport – grading the evidence: a statement paper commissioned by the Danish Society of Sports Physical Therapy

Review written by Shruti Nambiar info

Key Points

  1. Hamstring, adductor, rectus femoris/quadriceps and calf muscle injuries constitute 92% of all muscle strains in football.
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Bruises and strains account for 90% of all muscle injuries (1). Muscle strains are typically seen in superficial muscles extending across two joints such as the hamstrings, rectus femoris and gastrocnemius muscles, and occur due to non-contact mechanisms (1). Hamstring and adductor muscle injuries account for >50% of the injures in football. Due to the unchanged incidence of muscle strains over the last decade, this study aimed to identify, assess and grade the diagnostic tests, prevention and treatment strategies for common lower limb muscle injuries.

Bruises and strains account for 90% of all muscle injuries.
Eccentric strengthening for both hamstring and adductor injuries helped achieve faster return to play times and also reduced injury risk.


Multiple databases (Embase, MEDLINE, and CENTRAL), reference lists and other sources were searched for studies in English until September 2019. Study selection was done by two authors, independently. Disagreements were resolved through consensus.

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