Association Between Temporal Spatial Parameters and Overuse Injury History in Runners: A Systematic Review and Meta‑analysis

Review written by Tom Goom info

Key Points

  1. Average stride time, contact time, cadence and stride length are similar between injured and non-injured runners.
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Temporal spatial parameters describe running technique in terms of time and space variables. Examples include ground contact time, step width, stride length and cadence, and some can be measured by wearable devices such as GPS watches.

Some parameters are thought to be a factor in running injury. For example, prospective research (1) found runners with a low cadence (164 or less) were more likely to develop shin pain than those with a higher cadence (174 or more). However, the exact role of temporal spatial parameters in injury development remains unclear.

This systematic review aimed to analyze existing studies and perform a meta-analysis to identify the association between temporal spatial parameters and overuse injury during running.

The exact role of temporal spatial parameters in running injury development remains unclear.
You can assess and change temporal spatial parameters in injured runners if you believe it may reduce load on sensitive tissue, but we can’t assume these parameters are the cause of running injury.


An extensive literature search was performed using key databases to identify original data which compared temporal spatial parameters between groups of injured and uninjured runners. Retrospective, prospective and cross-sectional studies were included and were appraised using a quality assessment tool.

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