SOCIAL COGNITIVE OR LEARNING THEORY USE TO IMPROVE SELF-EFFICACY IN MUSCULOSKELETAL REHABILITATION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS

Review written by Dr Bronwyn Thompson info

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE

One of the most critical aspects of social learning theory/social cognitive theory is self-efficacy: a person's belief that they can successfully attain a particular outcome in a specific context. Self-efficacy is not a belief that a specific behaviour will lead to a certain outcome in a certain situation, it's the belief that I can perform that behaviour to produce the outcome.

Self-efficacy is an essential outcome of rehabilitation and is also an important predictor. Higher levels of self-efficacy prior to treatment are associated with better mood, disability and even adherence to the programme itself. Higher levels of self-efficacy at the end of treatment are associated with better long-term outcomes including disability and mood.

METHODS

This study was a systematic literature review with meta-analysis of peer-reviewed studies identified from Ovid and SPORTDiscus. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses Checklist guided the process. The terms "social cognitive theory" or "social learning theory" were combined with "rehabilitation" to identify the studies. Studies were included if they were: peer-reviewed, written in English, involved participants with orthopaedic and musculoskeletal conditions and focused on rehabilitation.

Studies were excluded if they were: dissertations, review reports, book chapters, non-peer reviewed publications or included patients with other health conditions, or who were being treated primarily for pain. Methodological quality was evaluated using McMaster Quantitative or Qualitative Critical Review Forms.

RESULTS

25 studies were initially identified, and after review, 20 provided the data for effect size calculations. 10 studies had large effect size (>0.8), 5 had moderate and 5 had small effect size (< 0.5), but overall, the mean effect size

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