2022 Bern consensus statement on shoulder injury prevention, rehabilitation, and return to sport for athletes at all participation levels (Part 2)

Review written by Dr Angela Cadogan info

Key Points

  1. No specific test or battery of tests can predict injury. Minimizing risk involves screening for injury history; obtaining and monitoring baseline measures such as range of movement, strength and power; and managing load.
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Shoulder injuries are common in both contact and non-contact sports. Shoulder injuries can have a significant impact on the ability to train and perform at the optimal level and can result in career-limiting consequences for some athletes.

Sportfisio Swiss (the Swiss Sports Physiotherapy Association) identified a lack of quality evidence to guide injury risk management and return to sport decisions for athletes post-injury. Supported by the Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy (JOSPT), they convened a consensus development group and produced a principle-based framework for use in all sports to help guide physiotherapy and performance staff in managing athletes with shoulder pain.

Shoulder injuries are common in both contact and non-contact sports.
All athletes should participate in injury prevention exercises regardless of injury history, with additional specific exercise programmes for those athletes deemed at higher risk of injury.


  • A modified Delphi process was used that included questions relating to themes identified from existing research and practice guidelines for two groups: overhead/throwing athletes and collision athletes.
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